Evidence of a School Composition Effect in Rio de Janeiro Public Schools

Tiago Lisboa Bartholo, Marcio Costa


This paper discusses the implementation of national and municipal assessment systems in Brazil, and how it has influenced the educational debate and newly shaped policies. The empirical analyses focus on public municipal schools in Rio de Janeiro and test the plausibility of the school composition effect theory. The approach combines different datasets provided by the Rio de Janeiro Educational Department: a) Prova Rio – longitudinal assessment for all public schools; b) Pupil Profile – longitudinal with information on all pupils, including family profile and school placement. Evidence from different models suggests the plausibility of school-mix effect theory. Data corroborates the claim that at least part of a purported “school effect” could be explained by a particular mix of pupils.


Educational Assessment; School Segregation; School Composition Effect


Alves, F. Lange, W & Bonamino, A. (2010) A Geografia Objetiva de Oportunidades Educacionais na Cidade do Rio de Janeiro. In: Ribeiro, L. C. Kolisnski, M. Alves, F & Lasmar, C. (Org.). Desigualdades Urbanas, Desigualdades Escolares. Rio de Janeiro: Letra Capital.

Bartholo, T. L. (2013) Measuring between-School Segregation in an Open Enrolment System: The Case of Rio de Janeiro. Journal of School Choice, 7: 353-371.

Bartholo, T. L. (2014) School Segregation in Rio de Janeiro Public Netword: Causes and Consequences. PhD Thesis. Post-Graduation Program in Education – Federal University of Rio de Janeiro.

Bartholo, T. L.; Costa, M. (2013) Measuring the Impact of the “Shift Policy” on School Segregation. In ABAVE: Assessment and Curriculum, Brasilia.

Brito, M.; Costa, M. (2010) Teachers’ practices and perceptions and their relations with prestige and school environment in public schools in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro. Revista Brasileira de Educacao (Impresso), v. 15, n.45, p. 500-510.

Bruel, A. L & Bartholo, T. L. (2012) Inequality of Educational Opportunities in Rio de Janeiro Public School System: Transition between Segments of Elementary School. Revista Brasileira de Educacao, 17 (50), 303–328.

Cavallieri, F & Lopes, G. (2008) Indice de Desenvolvimento Social - IDS: comparando as realidades microurbanas da cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Colecao Estudos Cariocas. Instituto Pereira Passos. Rio de Janeiro.

Coleman, J. S. (1961) Social Climates in High Schools. U.S. (Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of Education).

Consorte, J. G. (1959) A crianca favelada e a escola pública. Educacao e Ciencias Sociais, 5 (11), 45–60.

Costa, M. (2008) School prestige and hierarchy - a case study on differences between schools in a municipal network. Revista Brasileira de Educacao, (13) 455–469.

Costa, M., & Koslinski, M. C. (2011) A Hidden-Quasi-Market: Dispute for Common Schools in Brazil. Cadernos de Pesquisa, (41), 246–266.

Duncan, O. D., & Duncan, B. (1955) A Methodological Analyses of Segregation Indexes. American Sociological Review, 20 (2), 210–217.

European Group for Research on Equity in Educational Systems. (2005) Equity in European

Educational Systems: a set of indicators, European Educational Research Journal, 4(2), 1–151.

Gorard, S. (2006) Is there a school mix effect? Educational Review, 58 (1) 87–94.

Gorard, S., Taylor, C., & Fitz, J. (2003) Schools, markets and choice policies. London: Routledge Falmer.

Gorard, Stephen (2010) 'Serious doubts about school effectiveness', British Educational ResearchJournal, 36: 5, 745 — 766.

Gorard, S.; Hordosy, R. Siddiqui, N. How Unstable are ‘School Effects’ Assessed by a Value-added Technique? International Education Studies; Vol. 6, No. 1; p. 1 – 9.

Haarh, J., Nielsen, T., Hansen, E., & Jakobsen, S. (2005) Explaining student performance: evidence from the international PISA, TIMSS and PIRLS surveys, Danish Technological Institute. Available online at: www.danishtechnology.dk

Harker, R. (2004) Compositional effects in school effectiveness studies: a New Zealand case study, paper presented at the AERA Annual Conference, San Diego, CA, April.

Harris, R. (2012) Local Indices of Segregation with Application to Social Segregation between London’s Secondary Schools. Environment and Planning, 44 669–687.

Kounali, D.,Robinson, A., Goldstein, H., and Lauder, H., (2007) The Probity of Free School Meals as a Proxy Measure for Disadvantage, Bristol University, Bristol.


Lauder, H.; Kounali, D.; Robinson, T.; Goldstein, H. (2010) Pupil Composition and Accountability: and analysis in English primary schools. International Journal of Educational Research, 49 (2-3), 49-68.

Nash, R. (2003) Is the School Composition effect Real? A Discussion with Evidence from the UK PISA Data, School Effectiveness and Improvement, 14, 4, 441-457.

Raudenbush, S. W., Bryk, A. S (2002) Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Ravitch, D. (2010) The Death and Life of the Great American School System: how testing and choice are undermining education. New York, Basic Books.

Ribeiro, L. C & Koslinski, M. C. (2009) A cidade contra a escolar? O caso do Municipio do RJ. Revista Contemporanea de Educacao, (4) 351–378.

Ribeiro, L. C. Q., Koslinski, M. C., Alves, F., Lasmar, C. (2010) Desigualdades Urbanas, Desigualdades Escolares. Rio de Janeiro: Letra Capital.

Rosenthal, R & Jacobson, L. (1968) Pygmalion in the Classroom: Teacher Expectation and Pupils' Intellectual Development. (New York. Holst, Rinehart & Winston).

Saporito, S. (2003) Private Choices, Public Consequences: Magnet School Choice and Segregation by Race and Poverty. Social Problems, 50 (2) 181–203.

Smylie, M. A. Robert L. Crowson, V. C & Rebekah A. L. (2004) The Principal and Community-School Connections in Chicago's Radical Reform. Educational Administration Quarterly 30: 342.

Soares, J. F (2007) Improving cognitive performance of students enrolled in elementary school. Cadernos de Pesquisa, v. 7, n. 130, p. 135-160.

Thrupp, M. (1997) The school Mix effect: The History of an Enduring Problem in Educational Research, Policy and Practice, British Journal of Sociology of Education, 16,2, 183-203.

Thrupp, M. (1999) Schools Making a Difference: Let's be Realistic, Buckingham, Open University Press.

Thrupp, M., Lauder, H., and Robinson, T. (2002) School Composition and Peer Effects, International Journal of Educational Research, 37 (5), 483-504.

Thrupp, M., and Hirsch, D. (2006), The Limits of Managerialist School Reform: The Case of Target setting in England and the USA, in Lauder, H, Brown, P, Dillabough J-A and Halsey, A.H. (eds.) (2006) Education, Globalization and Social Change, Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Veloso, F.; Pessôa, S.; Henriques, R.; Giambiagi, F. (2009) Educacao Basica no Brasil: Construindo um pais do futuro. Rio de Janeiro: Elsevier.

Wilson, W. J. (1987) The Truly Disadvantaged: the inner city, the underclass and public policy. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0104-40362016000300001


  • Não há apontamentos.

Direitos autorais 2016 Revista Ensaio: Avaliação e Politicas Públicas em Educação

Licença Creative Commons
Este obra está licenciado com uma Licença Creative Commons Atribuição-NãoComercial 4.0 Internacional.

SCImago Journal & Country Rank